Image from page 404 of “The brain as an organ of mind” (1896)

Image from page 404 of “The brain as an organ of mind” (1896)
Mind Development
Identifier: brainasorganofmi00bast
Title: The brain as an organ of mind
Year: 1896 (1890s)
Authors: Bastian, H. Charlton
Subjects: Brain Nervous System Physiology Brain Nervous system Psychology, Comparative
Publisher: New York : D. Appleton and Company
Contributing Library: University of Connecticut Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Connecticut Libraries

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a very little, more advancedand complex in its convolutional development—the oneexception being in regard to the size of the occipital andexternal connecting convolutions, which are smaller in theBusbwoman. But the resemblance between the con-volutions of the two brains is very close, whilst the sim-plicity of their arrangement is not to be paralleled or evenapproached in normal European brains. It remains now to point out rather more fully thenature of the principal diiicrences presented by the brainsof Europeans Avhcn contrasted with those of the lowerhuman types to which we have hiilu^rto been referring.This, however, is a somewhat difficult task, because wideindividual diUcrenccs, relating to many details of structure, Chap. XXI.] OF THE HUMAN BRAIN. 387 are to be encountered in this organ in different Europeans.In some of them a brain is to be met with which appro:si-mates closely as regards size, relative development oflobes, and complicacy of convolutions, to the low standard

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Fig. ]4l.—Brain of Gauss, the Celebrated Mathematician and Astronomer, upperaspect. (Sharpey, after R. Wagner.) I, I, Longitudinal fissure; a, a, a, upper, middle and lower frontal convolutions ;A, A, ascending frontal convolution ; r, r, fissure of Rolando ; B, B, ascendingparietal convolutions ; b, b, parietal lobule; b, supra-marginal lobule; c, c, firstor upper temporal convolution ; p, perpendicular (or parieto-occipital) fissure ;d, d, a, upper, middle, and lower occipital convolutions. afforded by the brain of the Bush woman. In others, themajority of characters are decidedly higher, though incertain parts or situations there may be presented now one,now another, feature of a lower type. All sorts of grades 888 THE EXTERNAL CONFIGURATION and transitions are, in fact, frequently encountered, sothat the remarks made in reference to this part of our sub-ject must be suggestive and general rather than preciseand particular. Looked at from above, the shape or outline of theEuropea

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